Montreal Protocol and The Green Economy
In addition to the direct benefits of achieving the phaseout of ODS the Montreal Protocol has created enabling conditions that have stimulated a transition to a Green Economy.
UNEP defines such an economy as “one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities” (UNEP, 2011a). This definition combines economic goals of income growth with social goals of poverty reduction and employment creation as well as environmental goals including reducing greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, and preserving biodiversity and ecosystems services. This concept challenges the notions that: (i) there is an inevitable trade off between environmental sustainability and economic progress and (ii) a green economy would restrain growth and perpetuate poverty in the developing world.
The contributions of the Montreal Protocol to the Green Economy are evaluated first in terms of economic impacts of ODS phase-out at the sector level and at the macroeconomic level.
Under the economic impact heading the first point to note is that instead of imposing a cost to the economies of the countries that participated, the Protocol ended up actually strengthening them and moving them closer to the ideals of a Green Economy described above.